Publicaciones


Inter-visibility between settlements in pre-Hispanic Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. The relation between hierarchy and control of distant communications

Eduardo Mazuera & Roland Hudson

Abstract  

The pre-Hispanic Tairona society of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, in northern Colombia, adapted to their natural surroundings for the development of their culture, economy and architecture. The mountainous environment determined the location and shape of their settlements and roads, the use of construction materials and the way to adapt to the terrain. The location of these ancient villages coincides with the proximity to freshwater sources and usually takes advantage of ridges between watersheds or river basins, for possible strategic reasons of communication and defence. This research is based on computational experiments and fieldwork to explore the relationship that can be interpreted between the hierarchy of individual sites and their privileged position in the territory. Through viewshed analysis, multiple points were taken on the ground to assess the visual domain of some villages over others and the surrounding landscape.  

Keywords: settlement inter-visibility, viewshed analysis, communication exchange, Tairona pre-Hispanic culture, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta

Disponible en Journal of Archaeological Science: https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1cnRL15SlTrLFl


Ciudad Antigua: from remote sensing to virtual interactive experience of a pre-Hispanic settlement in Colombia

Andrés Burbano, Eduardo Mazuera, Zachary Meyer & Esteban García

Abstract  

This study addresses the first photogrammetry reconstruction of Ciudad Antigua (CA), a pre-Hispanic archaeological site in Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (SNSM), which is located in northern Colombia. The construction characteristics and symbolic relevance of places such as Ciudad Antigua, constitute a major part of the cultural heritage of Colombia. However, the remote location and limited public knowledge of the place have proven to be a disadvantage for the protection and conservation of this site. With this virtual representation project, we seek to fulfill three objectives: (1) Establish a strategy to preserve at-risk, remote archaeological sites through digital artifacts; (2) Use computational processes to go beyond representation and further analyze spatial components of the site; and (3) Spark and strengthen community interest in the history, architecture, design, and archaeology of SNSM. This study applies visualization and computation techniques to remote vestiges of cultural value, and demonstrates how these techniques can contribute to the social appropriation and protection of these ancient settlements. We created a functional prototype that could make the results of this research more readily available to the general public.  

Keywords: remote sensing, photogrammetry, virtual interactive experience, cyber-archaeology, pre-Hispanic settlement, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta

Disponible en Artnodes: https://raco.cat/index.php/Artnodes/article/view/n28-burbano


La fortaleza de los llanos de Bonda. Conquista de una frontera del reino español en el siglo XVI.

Resumen

Este artículo se enmarca en el proceso colonizador del reino español en América durante el siglo XVI, donde las fortificaciones jugaron un papel fundamental en el control y expansión del territorio. Se expone el caso particular de una “casa fuerte” que existió en la región de Santa Marta, donde las tribus indígenas opusieron gran resistencia a la conquista. Aquí se analizan las connotaciones simbólicas del edificio y los recursos discursivos textuales y gráficos para referirse a él. Para reconstruir el escenario y significado de ésta y otras edificaciones, se consultaron fuentes primarias de archivo, textos académicos y se realizó trabajo de campo en la zona de estudio. Como resultado, surge nueva información sobre la historia de las relaciones sociales en Santa Marta.

Palabras clave: colonia, frontera, guerra, defensa, indios americanos.

Investigación derivada de la Tesis de Maestría en Historia de la Universidad de los Andes. De ésta también han resultado ponencias, artículos e investigaciones sobre la arquitectura y arqueología en la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. Publicado en Trashumante, Revista Americana de Historia Social, No. 13, enero 2019

Disponible en Trashumante – Revista Americana de Historia Social: https://revistas.udea.edu.co/index.php/trashumante/article/view/336806

Mazuera Nieto, Eduardo. “La fortaleza de los llanos de Bonda. Conquista de una frontera del reino español en el siglo XVI”. En: Trashumante. Revista Americana de Historia Social, No. 13. Medellín: Universidad de Antioquia, enero 2019. pp. 56-83.


Gentrification in Historical Centers of Colombia: the Pressure of Real Estate Markets over the Traditional Population.

En: Boss Magazine, TU Delft, 2017.

Hacia una historia de la construcción desde las ciencias sociales.

Dearq Revista de Arquitectura. Bogotá: Universidad de los Andes, julio 2019. pp. 98-105.

Vínculo: https://revistas.uniandes.edu.co/pb-assets/multimedia/dearq/25_introduccion-1562854947423.pdf


Problemática y reflexión en torno a la intervención y recuperación del patrimonio arquitectónico en Colombia. En: Revista Dearq No.3.

Revista del Departamento de Arquitectura, No. 3. Bogotá: Universidad de los Andes, diciembre 2008

Disponible en: https://revistas.uniandes.edu.co/doi/pdf/10.18389/dearq3.2008.04


Control de la naturaleza y de la navegación – la escollera de Bocagrande y otras construcciones submarinas en Cartagena de Indias.

En: Historias sumergidas. Bogotá: Universidad Externado de Colombia, 2006


Conservación y continuidad de un edificio moderno en Bogotá, Colombia.

En: Ingenieros y arquitectos italianos en Colombia. Ruben Hernandez y Olimpia Niglio (Eds.) Roma: Ermes Edizioni Scientifiche, 2016.  pp.158-169.

https://issuu.com/revistradearquitectura/docs/archivo_final__proyecto_colomboital

Otras publicaciones

  • Mazuera Nieto, Eduardo. “La demolición de la identidad nacional”. En: Revista Slided. Bogotá: 2006
  •  Mazuera Nieto, Eduardo. Caminos prehispánicos del área tayrona, alternativas de su función. Bogotá: Ediciones Uniandes, 2003

Artículos sometidos a revistas indexadas, evaluados y en modificación.


Panorámica del concepto cambiante sobre el Patrimonio Cultural colombiano. Definición, legislación y visibilidad social.

Eduardo Mazuera & Andrés Hernán Varón León

Resumen

Este artículo se fundamenta en la revisión de publicaciones académicas recientes que ayudan a explicar el proceso de transformación de la identificación, valoración y protección legal del Patrimonio Cultural colombiano. Se repasan los conceptos, desde sus primeros registros, limitados y restringidos en el siglo XVIII, hasta los más elaborados, decantados e incluyentes de la actualidad. Aborda la construcción de una identidad nacional y el entendimiento de ciertas formas de organización social en Colombia a partir de la definición de este Patrimonio, y de sus diferentes categorías, modificados con el tiempo. Estos cambios han generado rupturas y discontinuidades, por políticas públicas que han privilegiado a algunas manifestaciones culturales sobre otras; protagonismo que luego será cedido a aquellas menos visibles.

Palabras clave: Patrimonio cultural, identidad nacional, legislación, valoración, organización social, historiografía.


The relation between cultural identity and vestiges from the past. Conflicts of power amongst an indigenous community in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia.

Eduardo Mazuera & Ricardo Andrés Valencia Robles

Abstract

This article addresses the relationship between the present cultural identity of certain communities and the vestiges of their past. This constitutes the appropriate scenario to evaluate cultural policies confronted with manifestations of social appropriation, which in turn are reflected in power relations. This phenomenon can be seen in a broader context and, at different scales in the study of some Latin American cases where culture is associated with territory. All societies end ethnic groups are in constant transformation and change, some by external pressures, which affect the continuity of the relationship between past and present. Sometimes this can lead to an identity crisis. The above considerations are coupled here with fieldwork carried out at a Kogui indigenous community in the Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta, Colombia. Some members experience a process of cultural transformation and the effects on their ethnic identity and territorial appropriation. These changes, although relatively small and apparently inconsequential, ignite heated debates within their society since the sum of these can trigger alterations of the political and economic order in the near future.

Keywords: Cultural heritage, ethnic identity, territorial appropriation, power relations, community empowerment.


Remote Sensing Technology for Heritage Preservation and Cultural Appropiation. Photogrammetry, 3D modeling and Virtual Reality of a pre-Hispanic Settlement in Colombia.

Eduardo Mazuera, School of Architecture and Design, Universidad de los Andes, Colombia, Andrés Burbano, School of Architecture and Design, Universidad de los Andes, ColombiaEsteban García, Associate Professor, Department of Computer Graphics Technology, Purdue UniversityZachary Meyer, Graduate Teaching Assistant, Computer Graphics Technology, Purdue University

Abstract

This paper addresses the application of visualization and computation techniques to digitally model the archeological site Ciudad Antigua (CA) in Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (SNSM), Colombia. This interdisciplinary research focuses specifically on creating the first photogrammetry reconstruction of this ancient pre-Hispanic settlement, by means of a 3D model that allows valuable insights to computer visualization of archaeological heritage. A virtual reality experience can contribute to social appropriation and construction of cultural identity, since the vast system of pre-Hispanic road network and hundreds of interconnected Tairona settlements in SNSM is practically unknown to most people in the region, the country and abroad. Archaeological research can benefit from the information produced here, with the detailed description of structures, like the atypical contention walls and stairs in CA, that combine a system of intertwined stairs, pathways and a piled series of horizontal layers that adapt to the topography with an irregular gradient.

Keywords: Remote sensing, photogrammetry, cultural heritage, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, pre-Hispanic archaeology.

Acknowledgements: Faculty of Architecture and Design, Universidad de los Andes, for funding fieldwork and photogrammetry survey. Nexo Global Partners of the Americas, for funding data processing, 3D models and virtual reality.


Beyond visualization: Remote sensing application in pre-Hispanic settlements to understand ancient anthropogenic land use and occupation in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia

Santiago Giraldo, Pro Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta Foundation, Colombia & Global Heritage Fund, Latin America.

Daniel Rodríguez Osorio, Department of Anthropology, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, USA, Eduardo Mazuera, School of Architecture and Design, Universidad de los Andes, Colombia, Andrés Burbano, School of Architecture and Design, Universidad de los Andes, Colombia, Estefanía Figueredo, School of Architecture and Design, Universidad de los Andes, Colombia

Abstract

Archaeology is increasingly employing remote sensing techniques such as airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging), Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS), and Photogrammetry in tropical environments where dense vegetation largely hinders the possibility of understanding the extent of ancient landscape modification. Furthermore, the discipline is witnessing a transition from visualization to more sophisticated analytical endeavours that serve to overturn traditional misconceptions of tropical ecologies and the human groups that have inhabited them in the long-term. This paper presents an unprecedented view of the pre-Hispanic land use and occupation of the North and North-western sides of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta that the use of the aforementioned technologies enabled. Moreover, it examines how the topography and the masonry architecture of the sectors comprising two archaeological sites, Teyuna-Ciudad Perdida and Congo-Ciudad Antigua, affect their visibility and inter-visibility. By recursively integrating remote sensing and archaeology, this study contributes to interdisciplinary scholarship examining ancient land use and occupation from a multi-scale perspective.

Keywords: Ancient land-use and occupation, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Airborne LiDAR, TLS, Photogrammetry, Cumulative Viewshed.

Acknowledgements: Department of Anthropology, University of Minnesota, for allowing data processing in their computers.